REL 226: Biblical Archaeology, Fall 2004.    SYLLABUS                             RJDKnauth
Class time MWF 12:45-1:50 pm, B202. Office hours MWF 2:10-3 pm, T/Th 9:30-11:30 am.
Office D-320. E
mail: Tel: 321-4298(GAYT), home: 326-3822.
Religion Tutors at ARC: Katie John, Kent Hayden, Jill Parker.

This course will introduce basic archaeological method and explore how archaeological findings can clarify and illustrate the meaning and historical background of Biblical texts.  

 The course has three sections:
            1) The Pre-Israelite Period (Neolithic to Late Bronze)
            2) The Israelite Nation (the Iron Age)
            3) Student Oral Presentations (using Power Point)

          Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible
          Lawrence Stager, Ashkelon Discovered and “Archaeology of the Family” (on reserve)
          The Oxford Bible Atlas

Course Requirements: 

  1) Attendance and informed participation (readings having been completed) at all class sessions will be expected (worth 10% of the final grade).  The attendance policy for this course is that there are no excused absences without a written note from a doctor or parent/guardian regarding a serious family or medical emergency (e.g. requiring hospitalization).  Each set of 3 absences lowers your final grade 1%.  Lectures will be liberally illustrated with slides and may diverge significantly from the textbook, so attendance is crucial. 

  2) Weekly Quizzes (10 total, worth 10% of the final grade) will be given at the beginning of class each Wednesday on the readings for that week.

3) Period Outlines (5 total, worth 10% of grade, due Wednesdays) on EB, MB, LB, Iron I, Iron II.
*Do your own work and keep a copy!  Outline forms and samples for Neolithic & Chalcolithic periods provided.*

  4) Students wishing to make up for absences or missed quizzes may submit Chapter Outline Summaries (1-2 pages, typed) of the assigned chapter from Mazar for that week.

5) Tests on each of the first two sections (each worth 10% of the final grade) will be non-cumulative, covering mainly factual issues of methodology, historical background, and scholarly theories relevant to the material.  Review sheets will be handed out in advance.

  6) A short Research Project (worth 30% of the final grade) will be required on an archaeological site or topic.  Topics will be chosen and signed up for in advance from the list at the end of this syllabus.  Each student will give a 15 min. illustrated Power Point presentation, with a 1-pg summary handout for the class, and a 6-pg write-up to be handed in along with a printout copy of your presentation. You must use a minimum of 6 non-internet sources, and you must cite them all properly.  Unless you have been conducting your own excavations, every piece of information should have a specific citation attached to it, saying where you got the information.  The difference between plagiarism and proper research is only proper citation.  If you do not understand this, please come talk to me or any other faculty member.    

  7) A Final Exam (3 hours, worth 20% of the final grade), covering the entire course, will be given during exam period.  This exam will consist of essay questions, for which there will be some choice, concerning broader themes and concepts from the entire course.  It will be thematic and issue oriented.  Review sheets, listing some of the main themes and issues of the course, will be handed out on the last day of class, and will be the basis for the final exam questions. Use the student reports, returned midterms, review sheet, period outlines and quizzes to review.  In addition, students will be allowed to bring a 2-page “study-buddy” (based on the Period Outlines) into the final exam, to be handed in with the exam.  These should contain a collection of facts, dates and data which you can use to flesh out your exam essays.  However, you cannot write out your essay answers in advance on these sheets, and YOU MUST DO YOUR OWN WORK!  This is to help you study for the exam, and pooling information will not help you as much as doing your own.

  8)  Extra Credit may be granted for watching archaeology-related documentary programs on the Discovery channel, Learning channel, History channel, etc.  To get credit, the student must submit a 1-2 page summary (typed) of relevant archaeological or biblical points from the program, along with the title of the program, the channel, and the date and time watched.

Schedule of Classes:                               

Section 1: The Pre-Israelite Period

Week 1:  Introduction, Methodology
    Read Mazar ch. 1, Atlas pp. 9-16, 20-24, 48, 54-55, 92-93, 98-119.
      Review “Useful Terms” handout
M (Aug. 30)- Intro: Archeologist as detective: what is left? The building of a tell.
W (Sept. 1)- The Land of Israel. Overview of Biblical History.
 F  (Sept. 3)- Pottery Chronology.  Read Cross From Epic to Canon ch. 12 (on Reserve).

Week 2:  Pre-History: Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze (8500-2000 BCE)
     Skim Mazar ch. 2-3 (along with provided Period Outlines), read Mazar ch. 4 (creating your own outline).
M (Sept. 6)- The Neolithic Revolution (8500-4300).  Jericho.
W (Sept. 8)- Chalcolithic Innovations (4300-3300).  Teleilat Ghassul, En Gedi.
 F  (Sept. 10)- Early Bronze – Emerging Cities, Writing (3300-2000).  Arad. *Quiz 1.  
*EB (Early Bronze) Period Outline due Friday (fill in provided form based on Mazar ch. 4; 
  use provided sample outlines for Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods as a model).

Week 3: Middle Bronze- Patriarchal Period, Canaanite City-States (2000-1550 BCE)
     Read Mazar ch. 5-6, Atlas p. 56.
M (Sept. 13)- EBIV/MBI Chaotic Interlude. Amorite people movements.  
                        ANE Texts: Laws, Treaties, Mari letters, Nuzi parallels, Myths.
W (Sept. 15)-
MB global politics, chronologies. Pottery, seals. Major sites. *Quiz 2. *MB PO due.
 F (Sept. 17)- Build-up of tells: rampart walls & glacis; chariots & siege warfare. Palaces & temples.

Week 4:  Late Bronze - Under Egyptian Domination (1550-1200 BCE)
     Read Mazar ch. 7, Atlas p. 58, 107-108.
M (Sept. 20)-  Amarna Age, international trade and cosmopolitan culture.
                         Egyptian and Canaanite religion (burials, temples and art).
W (Sept. 22)-  Searching for the Exodus. Rameses, Hapiru, Hyksos. *Quiz 3. *LB PO due.
 F  (Sept. 24)-  Major collapse; where does "history" begin? Invention of the alphabet.
                           Wanderings - how to detect? Absence of Evidence...

Week 5:  Review and Test for Pre-Israelite Period
     Review Readings in Mazar ch. 1-7.
M (Sept. 27)-  Review: History, Culture, Sources, Methodology.  *Hand out Exam Review Sheets.
M (Sept. 27)- 7:00pm C-303 Public Lecture by Dr. Robert Miller of Juniata College:
                        "The Historical Jesus and the Kingdom of God" (extra credit).
W (Sept. 29)-  Review for Test: Archaeology Jeopardy I.
 F  (Oct. 1)-  *Test 1* on Mazar ch. 1-7:  Methodology, Pre-Israelite period.

Section 2: The Israelite Nation

Week 6:  Iron Age I - The Tribal League (1200-1000 BCE)
     Read Mazar ch. 8, ch. 12 re Philistines; Atlas p. 60.
M (Oct. 4)- Issues of conquest/settlement; major changes in settlement patterns.
W (Oct. 6)- Period of judges: unity/disunity. Ethnicity, "distinctiveness." *Quiz 4. *Iron I PO due.
 F  (Oct. 8)- Sea peoples and the need for a monarchy. *1st Test returned, discuss.*

Week 7:  Iron IIA - The United Monarchy (1000-925 BCE)
     Read Mazar ch. 9, ch. 12 re Phoenicia; Atlas pp. 18-19, 64, 66, 80.
*Sign up for Research Topics* (sign-up sheet on door of D-320, first-come basis)!
M (Oct. 11)- Golden Age of Israel- power vacuum. Iron Age History and Politics- overview.
                         Solomonic Temple, Jerusalem as Regal/Ritual City.

W (Oct. 13)-
Instructions for preparing Power Point Presentations (OCT staff). *Quiz 5. 
                         Meet in Computer Lab.  Bring your research project materials.
F  (Oct. 15)- Long Weekend - NO CLASS.   
*No P.O. due.
Begin researching topic: find sources, outline major issues, choose illustrations.

Week 8:  Bill Dever Week!  Iron IIB-C - Divided Monarchy: North (925-722 BCE)
     Read Mazar ch. 10 up to pg. 416, ch. 12 re Assyria; Atlas pp. 22-30, 68-71.
M (Oct. 18)- Dever:  Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer, Shechem; 
Gates, Walls, Houses, Water Systems... High Places.
M/T (Oct. 18/19)- 7:30pm Heim G-11 Public Lecture, renowned biblical archaeologist Bill Dever! 
W (Oct. 20)- Dever: Samaria - founded as capital in 882; fall to Assyria in 722 BCE
                The Syro-Ephraimite Coalition and the Assyrian Crisis.  *Quiz 6.
 F  (Oct. 22)-
Dever: Phoenician Alliance - competing ideologies, iconography. Kuntillet Ajrud.
*No P.O. due.  Plan to come to whatever events Bill Dever participates in!
  Special showing of "The Big Dig" film on Bill Dever's excavation at Gezer (also library reserve)
  In your spare time - map out your presentation on paper.

Week 9:  Iron IIB-C - Divided Monarchy: South (925-586 BCE) - Assyrian Domination
     Read Mazar ch. 10 from pg. 416 on, ch. 12 re Babylonia; Atlas pp. 72-75.
M (Oct. 25)- Sennacherib's 701 BCE Invasion of Judah, Lachish LMLK jars
Slides of Assyria.
W (Oct. 27)- Arad, Beersheba, Lachish and Jerusalem. *Quiz 7.
 F  (Oct. 29)-  Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE, Babylonian Exile.  Slides of Babylon.

*No P.O. due. Work on Presentation.
Scan pictures! Do research!  Draft write-up!

Week 10:  Israelite Material Culture, Stager's “Archaeology of the Family”
     Read Mazar ch. 11 and Stager's
“Archaeology of the Family in Ancient Israel."
M (Nov. 1)- Library Research Session - Meet in Library!
W (Nov. 3)-
Architecture, fortifications, religion, art, inscriptions, burials (small groups). *Quiz 8.
 F  (Nov. 5)- Terraces, Iron, Stables and Family life. *Quiz 9 on "Archaeology of Family." 
*No P.O. due. Work on Presentation. Prepare 1-pg handout.
Work on 6-pg research project write-up.

Week 11:  Ashkelon Case Study, Review and Test. *Hand Out Review Sheet.
Read Stager's Ashkelon Discovered. Review Mazar ch. 8-12.
M (Nov. 8)- 
Ashkelon through time - a case study. *Quiz 10 on Ashkelon. *Iron II PO due.
W (Nov. 10)- Review for Test on Mazar ch. 8-12.  Archaeology Jeopardy II.

 F  (Nov. 12)- *Test 2* on Mazar ch. 8-12 (Israelite Period) + Stager.    

Section 3: Student Team Reports (15 minutes each, including time for discussion)**
**These will all be Team Projects - 15 min. each, with independent write-ups.
*Use Mazar (check index) and the Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (in reference) to start, plus Stager's Life in Biblical Israel & Levy's Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (on reserve).
Check the "DS" section in the library stacks, as well as checking for relevant articles in BAR, etc. 
*Note: This is a research project. Unless you have been conducting your own excavations, every piece of information should have a specific citation attached to it, saying where you got the information. 

*You must use a *minimum* of 6 non-internet sources, and you must cite them all properly. 
*Turn in your 1-pg summary handout for the class a day ahead so that it may be copied for the class.
*Turn in your 6-pg Project Write-up and a hard-copy of your Presentation in class when you present.
*Unless there is a serious excuse such as a major illness (with a note from the doctor), family emergency (with a note from your parents), or other serious problem, late write-ups will be penalized at the discretion of the instructor.

Week 12:  Student Presentations on Thematic Topics.     

M (Nov. 15)- __________ 1. City gates, walls and forts

                      __________ 2. Water systems

                      __________ 3. Horses, chariots, weapons, methods of siege warfare, defenses

                      __________ 4. Houses/dwellings 

W (Nov. 17)- __________ 5. Pottery

                    __________ 6. Industry (agriculture, olive presses, wine presses), Tools, Trade, Transport

                      __________ 7. Jewelry, Art, Musical Instruments, Seals, & other material culture of value

                      __________ 8. Writing, Literacy and Inscriptions

 F  (Nov. 19)- __________ 9. Palaces

                       __________ 10. Temples

                       __________ 11. Graves/burial practices

                       __________ 12. Idols/icons, altars, other religious artifacts  

Week 13Cyprus Report and Thanksgiving Break.  No Reading.  
M (Nov. 22)- Special Presentation on the Dig at Idalion, Cyprus (+ Digging in Egypt?). 
W (Nov. 24), F (Nov. 26)- *Off for Thanksgiving, No Class.*

Week 14:  Student Presentations on Site Case Studies: Major Finds and Problems

M (Nov. 29)-   __________ 13. Arad (esp. EB/Iron II) and Beersheva

                        __________ 14. Hazor                 

                        __________ 15. Megiddo         

                        __________ 16. Jericho 

W (Dec. 1)-     __________ 17. Shechem

                        __________ 18. Gezer

            __________ 19. Lachish

            __________ 20. Tel Dan
F  (Dec. 3)-     __________ 21. Samaria and Ramat Rahel

                        __________ 22. Jerusalem

            __________ 23. Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

            __________ 24. Masada

Week 15:  Persian Period and Beyond, Final Exam Review. *Exam Review Sheet handed out.*
     Read Atlas pp. 20-47, 76-90, 97.
M (Dec. 6)- Persian Period Restoration, 2nd Temple; Hellenistic Period (slides).
W (Dec. 8)- New Testament (Roman) period (slides).
 F  (Dec. 10)- Review for Final Exam 

A 3-hour Final Exam on the entire course will follow during Exam week (Dec. 13-17).
Don't forget to prepare your "study-buddies"!

Instructions for Electronic ReservesSupplemental course readings have been placed on
electronic reserve through WebCT at
Your username is the same as your Novell login.  The password is initially set to the last six digits of your Social Security number.  Full instructions are available on the library Web site at Contact Martha Ashenfelder (x4150) or Diana Cleveland (x4160) in ITS about forgotten passwords.  For other problems or questions, contact Joanna Holcombe (x4087) or Gail Spencer (x4053) in the library or use the help form at

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