REL 226d: Biblical
Archaeology, Fall 2008.
Class MWF 12:45-1:35pm + Lab T/Th 3:00-4:00, B309. Office hours T/Th 9:30-11am, 1:30-2:30pm
Office D-320. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: 321-4298(GAYT), home: 326-3822.
Archaeology/Religion Tutors at ARC: Kirsten Darby, Matthew Martin.
This course will introduce basic archaeological method and explore how archaeological findings can clarify and illustrate the meaning and historical background of Biblical texts.
The course has three
sections and a lab: 1) The Pre-Israelite Period (Neolithic to Late
2) The Israelite Nation (the Iron Age)
3) Student Oral Presentations (using Power Point)
Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible
Lawrence Stager, Ashkelon Discovered and “Archaeology of the Family” (on reserve)
The Oxford Bible Atlas (4th edition)
1) Attendance and informed participation (readings having been completed) at all class sessions will be expected (worth 10% of the final grade). The attendance policy for this course is that there are no excused absences without a written note from a doctor or parent/guardian regarding a serious family or medical emergency (e.g. requiring hospitalization). Each set of 3 absences lowers your final grade 1%. Lectures will be liberally illustrated with slides and may diverge significantly from the textbook, so attendance is crucial.
2) Weekly Quizzes (10 total, worth 10% of the final grade) will be given at the beginning of class each Wednesday on the readings for that week.
3) Period Outlines (5 total, worth 10% of grade, due Wednesdays) on EB, MB, LB, Iron I, Iron II.
*Do your own work and keep a copy! Outline forms and samples for Neolithic & Chalcolithic periods provided.*
4) Lab Exercises (12 total, worth 10% of grade). See Moodle class for special handouts/readings.
5) Tests on each of the first two sections (each worth 10% of the final grade) will be non-cumulative, covering mainly factual issues of methodology, historical background, and scholarly theories relevant to the material. Review sheets will be handed out in advance.
6) A Research Project and Team Presentation (worth 20% of the final grade) will be required on an archaeological site or topic. Topics will be chosen and signed up for in advance from the list at the end of this syllabus. Each team will give a 15 min. illustrated Power Point presentation, with a 1-pg summary handout for the class and a printout copy of the presentation. Each student must also turn in his or her own individual 6-pg write-up of the research upon which the presentation was based. A minimum of 6 non-internet sources must be used and cited properly. Unless you have been conducting your own excavations, every piece of information should have a specific citation attached to it, saying where you got the information. The difference between plagiarism and proper research is only proper citation. If you do not understand this, please come talk to me or any other faculty member.
7) A Final Exam (3 hours, worth 20% of the final grade), covering the entire course, will be given during exam period. This exam will consist of essay questions, for which there will be some choice, concerning broader themes and concepts from the entire course. It will be thematic and issue oriented. Review sheets, listing some of the main themes and issues of the course, will be handed out on the last day of class, and will be the basis for the final exam questions. Use the student reports, returned midterms, review sheet, period outlines and quizzes to review.
8) Extra Credit may be granted for watching archaeology-related documentary programs on the Discovery channel, Learning channel, History channel, etc. To get credit, the student must submit a 1-2 page summary (typed) of relevant archaeological or biblical points from the program, along with title of program, channel, and date and time watched.
Schedule of Classes: Section 1: The Pre-Israelite Period
Week 1: Introduction,
Read Mazar ch. 1, Atlas pp. 3-46, 177-201.
Review “Useful Terms” handout.
M (Aug. 25)- Intro: Archeologist as detective: what is left? The building of a tell.
W (Aug. 27)- The Land of Israel. Overview of Biblical History.
F (Aug. 29)- Pottery Chronology. Read Cross From Epic to Canon ch. 12 (Reserve). Asst hand-out.
Lab Exercise 1: Square-stringing and Top Plan drawing (w/ Triangulation).
Pre-History: Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze (8500-2000
Skim Mazar ch. 2-3 (along with provided Period Outlines), read Mazar ch. 4 (creating your own outline).
M (Sept. 1)- The Neolithic Revolution (8500-4300). Jericho.
W (Sept. 3)- Chalcolithic Innovations (4300-3300). Teleilat Ghassul, En Gedi.
F (Sept. 5)- Early Bronze – Emerging Cities, Writing (3300-2000). Arad. *Quiz 1.
*EB (Early Bronze) Period Outline due Friday (fill in provided form based on Mazar ch. 4;
use provided sample outlines for Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods as a model).
Lab Exercise 2: Neolithic Arak (write-up due Monday 9/8).
Middle Bronze- Patriarchal Period, Canaanite City-States (2000-1550
Read Mazar ch. 5-6, Atlas pp. 65-76.
M (Sept. 8)- EBIV/MBI Chaotic Interlude. Amorite people movements.
ANE Texts: Laws, Treaties, Mari letters, Nuzi parallels, Myths.
W (Sept. 10)- MB global politics, chronologies. Pottery, seals. Major sites. *Quiz 2. *MB PO due.
F (Sept. 12)- Build-up of tells: rampart walls & glacis; chariots & siege warfare. Palaces & temples.
Lab Exercise 3: Pottery Drawing (oil lamp drawing/typology asst. due at start of lab).
Late Bronze - Under Egyptian Domination (1550-1200
Read Mazar ch. 7, Atlas pp. 77-82.
M (Sept. 15)- Amarna Age, international trade and cosmopolitan culture.
Egyptian and Canaanite religion (burials, temples and art).
W (Sept. 17)- Searching for the Exodus. Rameses, Hapiru, Hyksos. *Quiz 3. *LB PO due.
F (Sept. 19)- Major collapse; where does "history" begin? Invention of the alphabet.
Wanderings - how to detect? Absence of Evidence...
Lab Exercise 4: Latreia (write-up due Monday 9/22).
Review and Test for Pre-Israelite Period
Review Readings in Mazar ch. 1-7.
M (Sept. 22)- Review: History, Culture, Sources, Methods. *Hand out Exam Review Sheets.
W (Sept. 24)- Review for Test: Archaeology Jeopardy I.
F (Sept. 26)- *Test 1* on Mazar ch. 1-7: Methods, Pre-Israelite period.
Lab Exercise 5: Elevations, Balk/Section-drawing, Locus Sheets & Tags.
Section 2: The Israelite Nation
Iron Age I - The Tribal League (1200-1000
*Sign up for Research Topics!**
Read Mazar ch. 8, ch. 12 re Philistines; Atlas pp. 83-90. **Sign-up on D-320 door.
M (Sept. 29)- Issues of conquest/settlement; major changes in settlement patterns.
W (Oct. 1)- Period of judges: unity/disunity. Ethnicity, “distinctiveness.” *Quiz 4. *Iron I PO due.
F (Oct. 3)- Sea peoples and the need for a monarchy.
Lab: Library Research Session - Meet in Library!
Week 7: Iron IIA - The
United Monarchy (1000-925
BCE); Ashkelon Case Study.
Read Mazar ch. 9, ch. 12 re Phoenicia; Stager’s Ashkelon Discovered; Atlas pp. 91-102.
M (Oct. 6)- Golden Age of Israel- power vacuum. Iron Age History and Politics- overview.
W (Oct. 8)- Solomonic Temple, Jerusalem as Regal/Ritual City. *Quiz 5 on Mazar.
F (Oct. 10)- Ashkelon through time - a case study. *Quiz 6 on Ashkelon.
*No P.O. due. Begin researching topic: find sources, outline major issues, choose illustrations.
Lab: Instructions for preparing Power Point Presentations (ITS staff), meet in Computer Lab.
Iron IIB - Divided Monarchy: North (925-722
Read Mazar ch. 10 up to pg. 416, ch. 12 re Assyria; Atlas pp. 103-108.
M (Oct. 13)- Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer, Shechem; gates, walls, houses, water, high places;
W (Oct. 15)- Samaria (capital); Assyrian Crisis: Syro-Ephraimite Coalition, fall in 722 BCE. *Quiz 7.
F (Oct. 17)- Kuntillet Ajrud, Phoenician influence and competing ideology/iconography.
*No P.O. due. Map out presentation on paper.
Lab Exercise 6: Phasing – Brandon Park Bandshell w/ Harris Matrix.
Iron IIB-C - Divided Monarchy: South (925-586
Read Mazar ch. 10 from pg. 416 on, ch. 12 re Babylonia; Atlas pp. 109-126.
M (Oct. 20)- Sennacherib’s 701 BCE Invasion of Judah, Lachish LMLK jars. Slides of Assyria.
W (Oct. 22)- Arad, Beersheba, Lachish, and Jerusalem. *Quiz 8.
F (Oct. 24)- Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE, Babylonian Exile. Slides of Babylon.
*No P.O. due. Work on Presentation. Scan pictures! Do research! Draft write-up!
Lab Exercise 7: Phasing – Downtown Bldg w/ Harris Matrix.
Week 10: Israelite
Material Culture and Stager’s “Archaeology of the Family.”
Read Mazar ch. 11 (for Mon), Stager’s “Archaeology of the Family in Ancient Israel” (for Wed).
M (Oct. 27)- Architecture, fortifications, religion, art, inscriptions, burials (small groups). *Quiz 9.
W (Oct. 29)- Terraces, Iron, Stables and Family life. *Quiz 10 on "Archaeology of Family."
F (Oct. 31)- Long Weekend - NO CLASS.
*No P.O. due. Work on Presentation. Prepare 1-pg handout. Work on 6-pg research project write-up.
Lab Exercise 8: Phasing – Repton Barrow (on Moodle) w/ Harris Matrix. Write-up due Mon.
Review and Test. *Hand Out
Review Mazar ch. 8-12. *Iron II PO due.
M (Nov. 3)- Review for Test on Mazar ch. 8-12. Archaeology Jeopardy II.
W (Nov. 5)- *Test 2* on Mazar ch. 8-12 (Israelite Period) + Stager.
F (Nov. 7)- Special Student Presentations on 2008 Summer Digs at Gezer, Idalion.
Lab Exercise 9: Pottery Restoration.
Student Presentations on Thematic Topics.
Lab Exercise 10: Archaeologist’s Puzzle.
M (Nov. 10)- __________ 1. City gates & walls/fortifications, methods of siege warfare, defenses
__________ 2. Water systems (incl. irrigation for agriculture, etc.)
__________ 3. Houses/dwellings
W (Nov. 12)- __________ 4. Pottery
__________ 5. Jewelry, Art, Musical Instruments, Tools, Weapons (material culture)
__________ 6. Writing and Literacy, Inscriptions and Seals
F (Nov. 14)- __________ 7. Palaces
__________ 8. Temples (w/ Idols/icons, altars, other religious artifacts)
__________ 9. Graves/burial practices
Student Presentations on Site Case Studies: Major Finds and Problems
Lab Exercise 11: Geology Phasing.
M (Nov. 17)- __________ 10. Jerusalem
__________ 11. Samaria (+Ramat Rahel)
__________ 12. Tel Dan
__________ 13. Shechem (+Mt. Ebal, Mt. Gerazim)
W (Nov. 19)- __________ 14. Hazor
__________ 15. Megiddo
__________ 16. Lachish
__________ 17. Arad (EB/Iron II) and Beersheva
F (Nov. 21)- Video: “The Big Dig” (Gezer Excavation)
Video and Thanksgiving Break. No Reading.
M (Nov. 24)- “Digging for the Truth” (video presentation)
W (Nov. 26), F (Nov. 28)- *Off for Thanksgiving. No Class. No Lab.*
Persian Period and Beyond. *Exam
Review Sheet handed out.*
Read Atlas pp. 46-62, 127-174.
M (Dec. 1)- Persian Period Restoration, 2nd Temple; Hellenistic Period (slides).
W (Dec. 3)- New Testament (Roman) period (slides).
F (Dec. 5)- Masada, Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (slides). Review for Final Exam.
Lab Exercise 12: Materials Identification (ceramic, bone, stone, shell, metal, botanical).
A 3-hour Final Exam on the entire course will follow during Exam week (Dec. 8-12).
Special Instructions for Presentations:
*Use Mazar (check index) and the Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in
the Near East (in reference) to start, plus Stager’s Life in Biblical
Levy’s Archaeology of Society in the Holy
Land (on reserve).
Check the "DS" section in the library stacks, as well as checking for relevant articles in BAR, etc.
*Note: This is a research project. Unless you have been conducting your own excavations, every piece of information should have a specific citation attached to it, saying where you got the information.
*You must use a *minimum* of 6 non-internet sources, and you must cite them all properly.
*Turn in your 1-pg summary handout for the class a day ahead so that it may be copied for the class.
*Turn in your 6-pg Project Write-up and a hard-copy of your Presentation in class when you present.
*Unless there is a serious excuse such as a major illness (with a note from the doctor), family emergency (with a note from your parents), or other serious problem, late write-ups will be penalized at the discretion of the instructor.
*Submit your paper electronically at http://turnitin.com (class ID 1775895, enrollment password “ba07”).
Instructions for Electronic Reserves: Supplemental course readings have been placed on electronic reserve through Moodle, at http://moodle.lycoming.edu. Your username is your Novell login, with your regular Novell password.
Disability Accommodation: If you have a specific disability and wish to request academic accommodations to meet your needs, please consult with Mr. Dan Hartsock, Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities. You may reach him by telephone at 321-4294, or stop by his office on the third floor of Snowden Library in the Academic Resource Center.
A Note on Workload: College courses require preparation – on average 2-3 hours of preparation for every hour in class. So plan on 8-9 hours of preparation time per week per course, not including class time. This is more than a full-time job! However, given the high amount you pay for your education, you will not get out of it what you deserve unless you put in the time and do the preparation.
A Note on Academic Dishonesty: Academic Dishonesty is a serious offense at Lycoming College and in this class. Academic Dishonesty includes failing to give credit to sources used (otherwise known as Plagiarism). This would include copying material from books, articles, web sites or another student’s work without citing your source, whether on a formal paper or a short assignment. You are allowed to discuss assignments together, but when it comes to writing out your answers, you must do your own work and use your own words. If you do not clearly understand what this means or what plagiarism is, please come and talk to me about it and I will be glad to explain.