REL 113: Old
Testament Faith and History, Week 8. Divided Monarchy to Exile.
Read: 1st and 2nd Kings, Hill ch. 12, OTP pp. 155-190. Review Friedman ch. 4-7 (re Deuteronomistic History)
Monday: Politics of Rebellion and Kingship Ideology; Elijah
Cycle: Prophetic Corrective to Kingship.
Wednesday: Fall of North, Sennacherib’s Invasion: Conflicting Sources, Differing Perspectives.
Friday: Josiah vs. Manasseh. Theological Crisis in Exile: Reshaping History. Historical Overview.
Major theme of Kings:
“Kingship and Covenant.” Pattern
of prophecy and fulfillment (cp Chronicles).
The Deuteronomistic History Continued:
1st Edition: Josiah as pinnacle, Solomon as foil. Purpose: Reunify Kingdom.
2nd Edition: Exilic Perspective: Why did kingship fail? Purpose: Explain Exile as punishment.
NOT Yahweh is too weak. NOT Yahweh has abandoned covenant. Hope for Restoration!
Sources contemporary with events: “Annals of the Kings of Judah/Israel” (interwoven).
Selective treatment with a specific purpose: “As for the other events…, they are written in…”
Formulaic Deuteronomistic introductions/evaluations based on cultic considerations (sons of David/Jeroboam).
Confusing terminology: different uses of “Israel” before/after split (and exile), names of kings.
960: Solomon’s Temple – movable tabernacle inside? Temple theology…
925: 1Ki 12 Rebellion of the North: Set up by Solomon – building projects, corvee, taxes, North’s unfair burden. Union always tentative to begin with (as seen in Judges), quick to rebel: “To your tents…!”
“What part have we in Jesse’s son?” (Kinship society, ties not strong enough)
Theme of “wise men” and advice stories (cp w/ David, Absalom’s rebellion)
Problem of alliances, foreign wives/queen mothers bringing foreign worship.
Shishak’s invasion in 923 and its "archaeological horizon."
Note (Queen Mother) Athaliah’s take-over in 2 Ki 11.
Different models of kingship, north and south: Charismatic vs. Dynastic (North conservative)
Jeroboam sets up rival cult to that set up by David/Solomon: religious power play.
Deuteronomist sets up Jeroboam as villain and idolater on this basis, symbol of apostasy.
Calves at Bethel, Dan: more traditional than David/Solomon (cf Aaron’s golden calf, Ex 32)
1Ki 13 Theme of the lying prophet (cf Micaiah in 1Ki 22) – how to tell whether from the LORD (Deut 18:18-22)?
Correct prediction as endorsement of prophetic authority, but not primary purpose of prophecy.
1Ki 14 Ahijah the prophet and the death of Jeroboam’s (good!) son… (the opposite of the succession problem).
1Ki 15 Judah’s alliance w/ Ben Hadad of Damascus (Aram) in war against Israel.
Successive rebellions, bloody coups and civil war in the North.
882: Omri moves northern capital to Samaria (personal family property, just like city of David), w/in sight of Phoenicia.
(note extra-biblical references to “house of Omri” and “house of David” in Tel Dan inscription, Mesha Stella)
Ahab and Jezebel, Phoenician influence, and the introduction of Elijah the Prophet (cont’d below).
1Ki 21 Israelite kingship contrasted with Canaanite Kingship: the case of Naboth’s vineyard, repentance.
Prophets as needed corrective to kingship. The nature of prophecy as social commentary, call to repent.
Historical prophets vs. Writing Prophets, Major Prophets vs. Minor Prophets (the Book of the Twelve).
Moses>>Joshua, Eli>>Samuel//Samuel>>Nathan(?), Elijah>>Elisha.
Elijah’s showdown with the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel (1Kings 18-19).
Elijah’s theophany at Mt. Horeb (cf Moses’ theophany in Exodus 34), and the “prophetic revolution.”
Elijah’s successor Elisha (note repetition of major actions/miracles), story of the healing of Naaman (2Ki 5).
Major points about the nature of God: Universal (not local), all-powerful, only REAL God. Not deified nature.
Note continuous theme of prophecy and fulfillment throughout Kings.
More Politics, leading to Exile/Destruction of North by Assyria (Deuteronomist blames “sins of Jeroboam”)
1Ki 20 Ben Hadad again, war against Israel: God is not tied to hills or local area.
2Ki 1-3 Consulting other gods, Elijah’s assumption, War with Moab (Mesha)
Ben-Hadad siege of Samaria, killed by Hazael. Wars with Edom and Aram. Jehu’s bloody slaughter.
Athaliah’s failed takeover and Joash (repairing temple). Note the power of the priesthood (Jehoiada).
Azariah/Uzziah’s leprosy (see 2Chron 26): trying to take over priestly function. Cf Saul’s rejection, Miriam.
Jeroboam II revival of Israel; Assyria regaining power; Israel (Pekah) allies with Aram (Resin), threatens Judah.
Judah (Ahaz) asks help from Assyria (Tiglath-Pileser, happy to oblige) and both become Assyrian vassals.
721: Assyrian Kings Shalmaneser V, Sargon II defeat rebellious Israel. Exile/End of North.
701: Sennacherib’s Invasion of Judah, Hezekiah’s religious reforms, building projects and fortifications. LMLK jars.
609: Josiah’s reforms following Manasseh’s sins. Reunite Israel: DH1. Killed by Pharaoh Neco.
586: Babylonian King Nebuchadnezer destroys Jerusalem (incl. Temple). Deportation of elite. Exile.
Back to REL 113 Syllabus