REL113: Old Testament Faith and History. Review for 2nd Midterm (+ timeline, notes wks 6-9). RJDKnauth
“Conquest” – Judges: United, a Temple; Divided, North Falls. Judah Alone to Exile, Restore.
Period of the Judges, Tribal League (1200-1000) =Iron 1
ca. 1200 Conquest. Accounts in Joshua vs. Judges. Archaeological Evidence (big influx). Jericho vs. Ai paradigm.
UNITED MONARCHY (1000-925) =Iron 2A
ca. 1000 Institution of United Monarchy: Saul (rejected)>>David (Davidic Covenant). Jerusalem=capital, cult center. Golden Age.
“Succession Narrative” – sin and chaos>>Absalom’s Rebellion (David’s repentance, unconditional love, miniature exile)
Kings: Themes of “kingship and covenant,” patterns of “prophecy>>fulfillment.” Formulaic cult-based evaluations. “Annals of the kings”
DIVIDED MONARCHY (925-721) =Iron 2B
ca. 925 Rebellion of North (Jeroboam) from Rehoboam (bad advice): Divided Monarchy (Israel/Judah). Calf sanctuaries.
923 Invasion of Pharaoh Shishak, defeating 70 towns in Negev as recorded at Karnak.
882 Omri moves capital of North to Samaria.
Ahab & Jezebel (Phoenician alliance): Naboth’s vineyard.
Prophetic corrective to Kingship: “Elijah/Elisha Cycle,” contest on Mt. Carmel, theophany: new Moses!
853 Battle of Qarqar (Syro-Palestinian coalition, Ahab vs. Assyria’s Shalmaneser III) – temporarily halts Assyria’s advance.
Ahab killed by Arameans; Jehu’s bloody coup; Queen Athaliah’s takeover in Judah after Jehu kills Judean king (her son).
841 Submission of Jehu to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III as recorded on Black Obelisk.
Syro-Ephaimite coalition (Israel/Aram) vs. Judah, who asks Assyria for help – Tiglath Pileser happy to oblige.
732 Tiglath Pileser of Assyria invades Syria-Palestine, destroys Damascus (Aramean capital). Israel and Judah both vassals.
Politics and Prophets: Amos, Hosea -- Injustice, Unfaithfulness >> Fall of North.
JUDAH ALONE (721-587) =Iron 2C
ca. 701 Hezekiah’s preparations (wall, water tunnel, LMLK jars), rebellion>>Assyrian invasion (Sennacherib): fails to get Jerusalem!
Multiple sources (Kings, Chronicles, Isaiah, Assyrian annals), multiple versions. Seige of Lachish in Nineveh relief. Envoys?
“Evil” Manasseh (foreign worship, child sacrifice) blamed for exile (2nd edition of Deut. Hist., but cf Chronicles version!).
Josiah as culmination of good in Judah: expansion, religious reform, rediscovery of Law (1st edition of Deut. Hist.: Jeremiah?)
612 Fall of Nineveh (Assyrian capital) to Babylonians. Assyrian weakness, Babylonian takeover.
ca. 609 Judah’s king Josiah (Babylonian ally?) killed by Pharaoh Neco (Assyrian ally), who appoints king over Judah.
ca. 605 Battle of Carchemish – Babylonians defeat Pharaoh Neco, appoint new king over Judah.
Resurgence of prophecy: Jeremiah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah.
ca. 597 Babylonian siege of Jerusalem, partial deportation of Judah to Babylon (including Ezekiel), Babylonian-appointed king.
586 Theological Crisis of Exile: explain failure! God not powerful? Covenant abandoned? No! God’s punishment! 50/70(?) yrs.
Exilic prophecies: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 2nd Isaiah. Priestly redaction of the Pentateuch. Hope for Restoration! Repent!
537 Post-Exilic period = Restoration = Persian period >> beginning of 2nd Temple period. Returnees under Sheshbazzar/Zerubbabel.
“Chronicler’s History”: Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. Retells history from Adam to Restoration (rival of Deut. Hist. and Pentateuch?)
Restoration perspective: 1. No interest in Northern kings
2. Interest in Solomonic Temple and Rituals (rebuilding)
3. Repentance theme (e.g. Manasseh becomes paradigm of repentance)
4. Evaluations – Good, Bad, Good, Bad (even)
ca. 520 Returnees discouraged, temple rebuilding effort falters. Darius the Persian sends help. Prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah.
ca. 516 Dedication of 2nd Temple by Zerubbabel, Joshua (beginning of “2nd Temple Period”).
ca. 458 Persian king Artaxerxes sends Ezra, encourages restoration of native Israelite worship and law. Public readings of Law.
ca. 445 Artaxerxes sends Nehemiah (cupbearer>>Governor), goes back to Babylon.
433 Nehemiah returns to Israel. Problem of intermarriage.
ca. 330 Greek Alexander the Great conquers Persia (incl. Israel), persecution under successor generals (end of Persian Period).
168-63 Maccabean Revolt (1-4 Maccabees, Daniel?) sparked by persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes IV, ended by Roman Pompey
70 CE / AD Destruction of 2nd Temple by Romans (end of “2nd Temple Period”).
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