REL113: Old Testament Faith and History.  Review for 2nd Midterm (+ timeline, notes wks 6-9). RJDKnauth

Conquest” – Judges: United, a Temple; Divided, North Falls. Judah Alone to Exile, Restore.

“Deuteronomistic History” (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings continuous history based on Deuteronomy.  – Martin Noth)

Period of the Judges, Tribal League (1200-1000)   =Iron 1

ca. 1200 Conquest. Accounts in Joshua vs. Judges. Archaeological Evidence (big influx). Jericho vs. Ai paradigm.

Alternative theories: “Peaceful infiltration,” “Nomads settling,” “Revolting peasants” (Mendenhall/Marxist).

Martin Noth’s “golden age” – foundation of law, religion (moveable shrine, “amphictiony”)

Joshua:  Fitting end to pentateuch: Entrance into Land = Fulfillment of the Promise!  Jordan//Red Sea >> Covenant Renewal.
           
Tradition criticism – covenant renewal ceremonies as basis for accounts (e.g. Joshua 24).

Judges:  Unity/Disunity. Charismatic Leadership Ideal. Problem of Philistines.
             Pro- vs. Anti-Kingship themes within basic structure:               
    Gideon/Abimelech: “God is your King!” vs. Cycle (downward spiral) of apostasy without king in refrain: “In those days…”

[Ruth: from the wisdom scrolls. Kinsman Redeemer concept and gleaning laws illustrated. Moabite ancestry of David.]

Samuel:  Cult center at Shiloh. Problem with succession. Eli>>Samuel: Priest/Prophet/Judge.
            “Ark Narrative” significance for theology.  Rise/Fall of Saul, David.

UNITED MONARCHY (1000-925)   =Iron 2A

ca. 1000                Institution of United Monarchy: Saul (rejected)>>David (Davidic Covenant). Jerusalem=capital, cult center. Golden Age.

                “Succession Narrative” – sin and chaos>>Absalom’s Rebellion (David’s repentance, unconditional love, miniature exile)

Kings:    Themes of “kingship and covenant,” patterns of “prophecy>>fulfillment.” Formulaic cult-based evaluations. “Annals of the kings”

960   Solomon builds Temple (good or bad?!), “kingship like the nations”? Wealth and Wisdom, Glory days of Israel. Wives…

DIVIDED MONARCHY (925-721)   =Iron 2B

ca. 925                Rebellion of North (Jeroboam) from Rehoboam (bad advice): Divided Monarchy (Israel/Judah). Calf sanctuaries.

923      Invasion of Pharaoh Shishak, defeating 70 towns in Negev as recorded at Karnak.

882      Omri moves capital of North to Samaria.

                Ahab & Jezebel (Phoenician alliance): Naboth’s vineyard.

                Prophetic corrective to Kingship: “Elijah/Elisha Cycle,” contest on Mt. Carmel, theophany: new Moses!

853        Battle of Qarqar (Syro-Palestinian coalition, Ahab vs. Assyria’s Shalmaneser III) – temporarily halts Assyria’s advance.

Ahab killed by Arameans; Jehu’s bloody coup; Queen Athaliah’s takeover in Judah after Jehu kills Judean king (her son).

841    Submission of Jehu to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III as recorded on Black Obelisk.

                Syro-Ephaimite coalition (Israel/Aram) vs. Judah, who asks Assyria for help – Tiglath Pileser happy to oblige.

      732  Tiglath Pileser of Assyria invades Syria-Palestine, destroys Damascus (Aramean capital).  Israel and Judah both vassals.

                Politics and Prophets: Amos, Hosea -- Injustice, Unfaithfulness >> Fall of North.

ca. 722/1 Fall of Samaria (Omri’s capital) to Assyria, end of Northern Israel.

JUDAH ALONE (721-587)   =Iron 2C

ca. 701    Hezekiah’s preparations (wall, water tunnel, LMLK jars), rebellion>>Assyrian invasion (Sennacherib): fails to get Jerusalem!

                Multiple sources (Kings, Chronicles, Isaiah, Assyrian annals), multiple versions. Seige of Lachish in Nineveh relief. Envoys?

                “Evil” Manasseh (foreign worship, child sacrifice) blamed for exile (2nd edition of Deut. Hist., but cf Chronicles version!).

                Josiah as culmination of good in Judah: expansion, religious reform, rediscovery of Law (1st edition of Deut. Hist.: Jeremiah?)

     612    Fall of Nineveh (Assyrian capital) to Babylonians.  Assyrian weakness, Babylonian takeover.

ca. 609    Judah’s king Josiah (Babylonian ally?) killed by Pharaoh Neco (Assyrian ally), who appoints king over Judah.

ca. 605    Battle of Carchemish – Babylonians defeat Pharaoh Neco, appoint new king over Judah.

Resurgence of prophecy: Jeremiah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah.

ca. 597    Babylonian siege of Jerusalem, partial deportation of Judah to Babylon (including Ezekiel), Babylonian-appointed king.

ca. 587/6 Babylonian king Nebuchadnezar destroys Jerusalem (including Temple)>>Exile to Babylon. Jeremiah forced to Egypt.

EXILE (586-538)

     586     Theological Crisis of Exile: explain failure! God not powerful? Covenant abandoned? No! God’s punishment! 50/70(?) yrs.

                Exilic prophecies: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 2nd Isaiah. Priestly redaction of the Pentateuch. Hope for Restoration! Repent!

ca. 538    Cyrus the Persian takes over Babylon, issues edict: Israelites can go home! (but few do: impetus for “P”?) Davidic Sheshbazzar?

RESTORATION (537-330 = Persian Period)

     537     Post-Exilic period = Restoration = Persian period >> beginning of 2nd Temple period. Returnees under Sheshbazzar/Zerubbabel.

“Chronicler’s History”: Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. Retells history from Adam to Restoration (rival of Deut. Hist. and Pentateuch?)

   Restoration perspective:   1.  No interest in Northern kings (leave out)
                                           2. Interest in Solomonic Temple and Rituals (rebuilding)
                                           3. Repentance theme (e.g. Manasseh becomes paradigm of repentance)
                                           4. Evaluations – Good, Bad, Good, Bad (even)

ca. 520    Returnees discouraged, temple rebuilding effort falters. Darius the Persian sends help. Prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah.

ca. 516   Dedication of 2nd Temple by Zerubbabel, Joshua (beginning of “2nd Temple Period”).

ca. 458    Persian king Artaxerxes sends Ezra, encourages restoration of native Israelite worship and law.  Public readings of Law.

ca. 445    Artaxerxes sends Nehemiah (cupbearer>>Governor), goes back to Babylon.

      433   Nehemiah returns to Israel. Problem of intermarriage.

                Covenant Renewal. Public reading of Law (incl. women and children), with interpretation/explanation. Prophecy of Malachi.

ca. 330    Greek Alexander the Great conquers Persia (incl. Israel), persecution under successor generals (end of Persian Period).

168-63   Maccabean Revolt (1-4 Maccabees, Daniel?) sparked by persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes IV, ended by Roman Pompey

       70 CE / AD Destruction of 2nd Temple by Romans (end of “2nd Temple Period”).

 

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