REL 113: Old Testament Faith and History, 3rd Exam Review on Prophets. RJDKnauth
Study the Handout on Prophets, Review Hill & Walton ch.
22-39, Review Historical Outlines.
Read the introductions and outlines of contents for the prophetic books in a Study Bible.
Memorize the names of each of the prophetic books, and associate those names with something significant about that book, including the time period or political situation in which it was written, the circumstances and imagery of their prophetic call, their main message, and so on...
Making up a poem or song about them might help (see below), or make flashcards for yourself.
There are three main time periods in which the prophets were writing:
The Assyrian Crisis (ca 740-701 BCE): Syro-Ephraimite
Coalition, Destruction of Samaria, Invasion of Sennacherib
The Babylonian Exile (ca. 597/587 – 538) - the time leading up to it and its aftermath.
The Restoration (ca. 538 – 400 BCE): Re-building Jerusalem.
Post-Exilic / Restoration /
Second Temple Timeline:
(see Ezra and Nehemiah; Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi)
538 BCE – Cyrus the Persian conquers Babylonian Empire
and allows Israelites to return and rebuild Temple.
A small group under Sheshbazzar returns and starts on Temple (?).
522 Darius the Persian authorizes and endorses continuation
of work on temple despite local complaints.
A small group under Zerubbabel and Joshua returns and starts on Temple (incl. Zechariah).
520 Haggai’s prophecies (witness of destruction of Solomon’s temple): problem of lethargy, local Samaritan opposition.
516 Dedication of 2nd Temple (rebuilding of Temple complete)
458 Persian King Artaxerxes sends Ezra to encourage restoration of native Israelite worship.
445 Persian King Artaxerxes sends his “cup-bearer” Nehemiah to Judah as governor. Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt.
433 Nehemiah returns to Judah after a brief time back in Babylon. Prophesies of Malachi.
330 Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire for the Greeks, beginning of Hellenistic Age.
70 CE (AD) 2nd Temple Destroyed by the Romans.
Prophetic Poetry for Poetic Prophesy
Moses got the
tablets, Samuel anointed kings,
Nathan chided David, “Former Prophets” tell these things.
Elijah and Elisha pestered Ahab, taunted Baal,
Now the “Writing Prophets”: major, minor. Name them all!
Isaiah of Jerusalem
saw Assyrian crises three,
A “Second” part from exile brings them hope and comfort free.
saw Josiah to Judah’s Fall,
Criticized the Temple so they threw him down a well.
“Son of Man” Ezekiel
saw the dry bones and the “wheel,”
He wrote with Vivid Image, Prophetic Symbol to reveal.
Amos cried for
justice, Hosea wooed his wife,
Obadiah’s Edom, silly Jonah – get a life!
Micah from the
villages got down on priests’ corruption,
Abraham and Moses teach us God wants righteous action!
Nahum’s woe to
Nineveh – Slow anger, righteous power;
Zephaniah’s doom and punishment, Habakkuk’s wrestling prayer.
saw the old temple destroyed,
And whispered wise encouragement: “Give careful thought” he said.
Then came Zechariah’s
night apocalypse and fear,
Repentance leads to blessing, God’s messiah will appear!
Joel saw the
locusts, Malachi the last,
“Where is the God of Justice?” Soon our suffering will be past!
“Conquest” Judges: “United, a temple; Divided, North falls.” Judah alone to exile, restore.
Back to REL 113 Syllabus