REL 113: Old Testament Faith and History.                                  RJDKnauth
Review sheet for first midterm exam on the Pentateuch, Hill part 1 + appendix, Friedman, OTP excerpts.
Some things to think about (also review handout on Biblical Criticism and weekly outlines):

Genesis

Major concern/question of Genesis?
Genealogies as structuring device: “These are the generations of…”
Genealogies as political commentaries
Primordial/Primeval History – Creation, Fall, Redemption
Seminomadic Pastoralism vs. Settled Agriculturalism/Urbanism – biblical evidence of conflict
Problem of violence, significance of flood and Noachic covenant
Patriarchal narratives, personalities (know peoples’ names, who they are, what their role is in the story)
Promise to Abraham:  what? how fulfilled?
Sarah vs. Hagar, Isaac vs. Ishmael, Jacob vs. Esau, Leah vs. Rachel.  Significance?
Aqedah – Binding of Isaac: significance?
Jacob as “deceiver” – life pattern
“God of the fathers”/personal gods/household gods/local gods
Polytheism > Henotheism > Monotheism
Hagar, Bilhah, Zilpah: significance?
Dinah and Shechemites – significance?
Bethel and anointed pillars: significance?
Joseph story: significance?
Why would Joseph wrongly accuse his brother Benjamin?

                                Exodus

Moses’ birth story, parallel with Sargon: significance?
Pharaoh thwarting the plans of God; Women thwarting the plans of Pharaoh
Moses’ reluctance to take on leadership: significance?
Why did Moses have to spend 40 years in Midian?
Jethro/Reuel, Sinai/Horeb
“Midianite Hypothesis”
Moses/Aaron/Miriam
Purpose of the Plagues? (at least 5 different suggestions)
Was God justified in punishing the Egyptians because of Pharaoh’s hard heart?
Festival of Unleavened bread: significance? Significance of the Passover to later Israel?
“Consecration of the first-born”: significance?
What happened at the Red Sea? According to whom?
ANE imagery in creation/flood/crossing of Red Sea
Why Rameses II as Pharaoh of the Exodus? Why do scholars date the Exodus to 19th dynasty Egypt?
Merneptah, Hyksos and Hapiru: Who were they?  Why are they significant?
Significance of the liberation from slavery in Egypt to later Israel
Major concern/question of  complaining stories in Exodus and Numbers? God’s response?
Centrality of Sinai and Covenant
Nature of Sinai Theophany
“Ten Words” and “Book of the Covenant”
Apodictic Law (“Thou shalt not…”), Casuistic/Case Law (“If a man does _____, then….”)
Nature and significance of “Sabbath,” differing justifications.
Purpose of laws – enhance status of law-giver, illustrate character, meditation, etc.
Treatment of slaves and foreigners in Israelite law: significance?
Lawcode of Hammurabi parallels to biblical law
Hittite Suzerainty/Vassal Treaties: Significance?
Ark of the Covenant and Tabernacle – significance?
Significance of Golden Calf story, “Presence of Yahweh” theme

                                Leviticus

Major theme of Leviticus
 “Holiness Code”:  “Be holy because I, the LORD, am holy.”
Nature, purpose, significance of sacrifice (several different types!)
Clean/Unclean::Sacred/Profane.  Levels of Holiness.  Separation - set apart for God.
Jubilee; Exile as enforced Sabbath for Land

                                Numbers

Itinerary as structuring device (e.g. Num. 33)
Itinerary as pilgrimage route, teleology for local shrines and associated rituals
Manah:  what is it?
Balaam: different perspectives
Midianites/Moabites: Significance?
Levites vs. Aaronites
Spy story: Significance?
Why are Moses and Aaron both disqualified from entering the Promised Land?

                                Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy: what is it? Why is it needed?
Major Theme of Centralization of Worship, Covenant Loyalty to Yahweh
Problem of idolatry, aniconic tradition
“Shema” – “Hear O Israel”…  What is it?
Why does Deuteronomy end just on verge of entering the land, with promises yet unfulfilled?
Josiah’s Rediscovery and Reform – significance?
“Deuteronomistic History” (Martin Noth) – Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings.
                Who supposedly wrote it? When? Where? Why? Evidence?

                                Scholarship Issues

Literary/Source Criticism, Documentary Hypothesis (Wellhausen)
Characteristics of J (view of God, name of God, treatment of Moses/Aaron)
                Who supposedly wrote it?  When? Where? Why?
Characteristics of E (view of God, name of God, treatment of Moses/Aaron)
                Who supposedly wrote it? When? Where? Why?
Characteristics of P (view of God, name of God, treatment of Moses/Aaron)
                Who supposedly wrote it? When? Where? Why?
What is D?  Who supposedly wrote it?  When? Where? Why? Characteristics?
Who was the redactor? When? Where? Why?
Form Criticism – What is it?  What is it good for?
Tradition Criticism – What is it?  What is it good for?
Text Criticism – What is it? What is it good for?
Redaction Criticism – What is it? What is it good for?
Rhetorical/Literary Criticism – What is it? What is it good for?
Canon Criticism – What is it? What is it good for?
Elohim vs. Yahweh.  Significance of different names for God?
5 major themes of Pentateuch? Central point of Pentateuch? (Anderson ch. 1, p. 23)
<Patriarchal promises; Exodus liberation; Sinai covenant law; Wilderness guidance; Inheritance of promise>
Chiastic structure, poetic structure, legal structures, treaty format, etc.
Use of irony as a literary device in the Bible: examples
Ritual, Commemorative Festivals as context for remembering/reenacting past events
Current practice as filter for memory of past practices
Multiple levels of meaning, multiple purposes
Importance of Exilic perspective on Pentateuch?
Ancient Near Eastern context – Biblical parallels, continuity and discontinuity

The test will include short identifications and some short answer questions.

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