REL 226: Biblical Archaeology.  Review sheet for final exam.            RJDKnauth

Bring to final exam:  One 8½ x 11 paper: Bronze Age notes on one side, Iron Age notes on the other. Do your own!

These will be turned in, stapled to the back of your exam booklet, and counted toward the final exam grade.

For review, you may find it helpful to refer also to the list of terms, time-line, politics hand-out, and review sheets for the first and second midterms.  The exam will be essay format (long and short), building on the factual information you have gathered through the course.  Please use your one page of notes in order to give specific examples backing up your claims.  The exam questions will reflect the topics on the review sheets, and there will be some choice involved.  Here are some samples of the sorts of questions to expect. Good luck!


The “Age” system refers to Stone, Copper, Bronze and Iron, but the periods are not directly defined by the primary materials used.  What exactly DOES define the “Age”?  Use specific examples.

Discuss the importance of pottery within archaeological analysis: at least 3 aspects, use specific examples.

How was pottery invented? What were the major stages of its development? What are the major characteristics one looks for in seeking to date or sequence a particular group of pottery?

How do the invention of writing and the invention of the alphabet affect archaeological analysis (several aspects)?

How do inscriptions help us in archaeology?

Discuss at least two instances in which recognizing differences in the type of dirt present would be helpful.

Discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the Wheeler Kenyon method vs. the Architectural Exposure method.

Discuss the problem of the fundamental nature of archaeology as a destructive science.

Discuss the evidence used in determining whether a settlement represents a new population or the development of a previous population group.  Use specific examples.

Major innovations in technology at various points brought major changes in life-style. Discuss.

Discuss the nature of our sources for understanding ancient artistic sensibilities.

Discuss the evidence for development of social structure through the archaeology.

Discuss the nature and significance of fortifications in Israel through the different periods.

Discuss the significance of burial practices through different periods.

Discuss the significance and effect of the “conservative tendency” in religious architecture and iconography.

Discuss the significance of the Neolithic Revolution.  How did it come about?  How did it affect archaeology?

Discuss the evidence for culture and religion during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Ages.

Discuss the use and significance of “standing stones.”

Discuss the lifestyle conflict between semi-nomadic pastoralism and settled agriculturalism.

Discuss the contribution of “historical geography” to Biblical scholarship.

Discuss the contribution of archaeology to Biblical scholarship, and vice versa.

Discuss the significance of the “history” of the patriarchs, and the contribution of archaeology in this.

Discuss the significance of the “Amarna Letters” to the study of the history of Israel/Canaan.

Discuss the general differences between Middle Bronze and Late Bronze settlements, and their significance.


Why date the Exodus to the time of Rameses II?  Discuss the relevant evidence pro and con.

Discuss the problems surrounding the Israelite Conquest/Settlement, the various theories about it, and the mixed archaeological evidence for it.

Discuss the archaeology of destruction levels dating to 1200, and implications for conquest theories.

What is the major evidence used to establish the date of the arrival of the “Sea peoples” in Israel?

Discuss the significance of Mycenaean IIIc and Philistine Bi-Chrome pottery.

Discuss the need to be familiar with the culture and archaeology of surrounding cultures (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Philistia, etc.): how does this help our understanding of the Israelites?

Discuss the nature of the “Tribal League” in Israel, prior to the institution of the monarchy.

Discuss the problems involved with understanding Israelite Temple design and iconography.

Discuss the role of Jerusalem within Israelite society and David’s motivations for relocating his capital there.

Discuss the significance of Jeroboam’s calf sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan.

Discuss the significance of power politics, political alliances, and control of trade routes in Israelite history.

What was the Syro-Ephraimite coalition, and why was it significant?

Discuss the evidence surrounding the invasion of Sennacherib in 701 BCE.

Discuss the archaeological significance of the dating of Lachish III and the L’MLK jar seals.

Discuss the development and significance of “water works” in Israel.

Discuss the problems/controversy  surrounding the Kuntillet-Ajrud pithos graffiti.

What evidence does Stager give for his theory about the 4-room house containing a stable area?  Discuss.