REL 226: Biblical Archaeology.  2nd exam review sheet: The Iron AgeRJDKnauth

Settlement/Conquest theories
Traditional Exodus and Conquest as described in Joshua (conflict with Judges account?)
         “Peaceful Infiltration,”  “Nomads Settling Down,” “Revolting Peasants” (Mendenhall)
         Some mix of all of the above…

Archaeological Evidence
            Settlement Patterns
            Wave(s) of destructions (who caused?), problems with interpretation…
            “Conquest” of uninhabited sites
            The Jericho and Ai  (et-Tell) paradigm

Dating the Exodus, Israelite Conquest/Settlement, Arrival of the Sea-Peoples
            Tausert  Faience Juglet
            Medinet Habu relief
            Merneptah Stella
            Mycenaean IIIc pottery
            End of Cypriot and Mycenaean imports

Iron Age Fortifications
            Solomonic 6-chambered gates >> 4-chambered gates
            Earth ramparts, glacis
            Casemate walls >> Offset-inset (solid) walls, inner and outer walls and gates, towers
            Pier and rubble construction, Header-stretcher construction
            Ashlar masonry, orthostats, field-stones, mud-brick, plaster (mud, lime, etc.)
      Major water systems (Jerusalem “Siloam Tunnel” & “Warren shaft,” Megiddo, Hazor, Gezer)

Methods of Siege Warfare, issues surrounding chariots (e.g. Solomon’s “chariot cities”), etc.

Town planning – perimeter road, piazza, significance of City Gate, typical dwellings (4-room, pillared) etc.

Neighboring Peoples - Allies and Enemies:
Canaanites, Philistines, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Babylonians/Chaldeans, Assyrians, Edomites, Arameans, Moabites, Persians...

Dates to remember: 
1207/9, 1200, 1175, 1000, 960, 923, 882, 853, 721, 701, 612, 609, 587, 538, 516, 330, 70

Major battles:
Siege of Lachish, Syro-Ephraimite coalition, Battle of Qarqar, Battle of Carchemish, etc.

Significant developments in pottery:
LMLK jar handle seals, amphora, ostraca, Philistine bichrome, Mycenaean IIIc, Cypriot imports, Collared-rim store jars, Samaria-ware, triangular-rimmed cooking pot, stirrup jar, etc.

Significant Texts and Inscriptions:
Siloam tunnel inscription, “Annals of the Kings of Judah and Israel”, Assyrian and Babylonian annals, Ahiram sarcophagus inscription, Gezer calendar, Samaria ostraca, Lachish letters, Nineveh relief, Merneptah stella, Moabite stella / Mesha inscription, Shalmaneser III Black Obelisk, Medinet Habu relief, Arad letters, Sennacherib’s Prism, Cyrus Cylinder, “Tale of Wen-Amon,” Kuntillet ‘Ajrud graffiti, etc.

Major Sites – know significance, general location, major finds there:
Jerusalem / “City of David”, Samaria, Bethel, Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Lachish, Beer Sheba, Arad, Shiloh, Kuntillet Ajrud, Horvat Qitmit, Ezion-Geber, Gibeah, Jezreel, Hebron, Shechem – Mt. Ebal + Mt. Gerazim, Nineveh, Damascus, Tyre, Sidon, Babylon, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, Ramat Rahel, Tirzah, Jericho / Ai, etc.

Major rulers and leaders:
Rameses II, Merneptah, Tausert, Rameses III, Neco, Tiglath-Pileser, Shalmaneser / Sargon, Sennacherib, Joshua, Saul, David, Solomon, Jeroboam I, Omri, Ahab and Jezebel, Jehu, Jeroboam II, Pekah + Resin, Mesha, Ben-Hadad, Hazael, Hezekiah, Merodach-Baladin, Josiah, Nebuchadnezar, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, etc.

Religious artifacts, considerations:
     Four-horned altars, incense altars, Taanach Cult Stand.
     Baal bull imagery, calves in Israel and Philistia
     Kuntillet Ajrud graffito and inscription “Yahweh and his Asherah”
     Ashdoda, pillar-figurines, Horvat Qitmit horned god (Edomite?), Asherah, Tanit, Baal, Dagon, Molech
     Solomon’s temple – Ain Dara parallel, bit hilani (pillared buildings), “Holy of Holies,” Ark of the Covenant
     Cherubim iconography (sphinx?– lion/bull body, wings, human head), Bronze sea, Jachin & Boaz pillars, tabernacle

Biblical Events marking internal divisions of Iron Age: Tribal League, United Monarchy, 1st Temple, Divided Monarchy:
Fall of Samaria and Exile of North, Fall of Jerusalem and Exile of Judah, Babylonian Exile, Persian period.

More….  Review Mazar and Period Outlines!!!!!!!!!!