REL 226: Biblical Archaeology. 2nd exam review sheet: The Iron Age. RJDKnauth
Traditional Exodus and Conquest as described in Joshua (conflict with Judges account?)
“Peaceful Infiltration,” “Nomads Settling Down,” “Revolting Peasants” (Mendenhall)
Some mix of all of the above…
Wave(s) of destructions (who caused?), problems with interpretation…
“Conquest” of uninhabited sites
The Jericho and Ai (et-Tell) paradigm
Dating the Exodus, Israelite Conquest/Settlement, Arrival
of the Sea-Peoples
Tausert Faience Juglet
Medinet Habu relief
Mycenaean IIIc pottery
End of Cypriot and Mycenaean imports
Iron Age Fortifications
Solomonic 6-chambered gates >> 4-chambered gates
Earth ramparts, glacis
Casemate walls >> Offset-inset (solid) walls, inner and outer walls and gates, towers
Pier and rubble construction, Header-stretcher construction
Ashlar masonry, orthostats, field-stones, mud-brick, plaster (mud, lime, etc.)
Major water systems (Jerusalem “Siloam Tunnel” & “Warren shaft,” Megiddo, Hazor, Gezer)
Methods of Siege Warfare, issues surrounding chariots (e.g. Solomon’s “chariot cities”), etc.
Town planning – perimeter road, piazza, significance of City Gate, typical dwellings (4-room, pillared) etc.
Neighboring Peoples - Allies and Enemies:
Canaanites, Philistines, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Babylonians/Chaldeans, Assyrians, Edomites, Arameans, Moabites, Persians...
Dates to remember:
1207/9, 1200, 1175, 1000, 960, 923, 882, 853, 721, 701, 612, 609, 587, 538, 516, 330, 70
Siege of Lachish, Syro-Ephraimite coalition, Battle of Qarqar, Battle of Carchemish, etc.
Significant developments in pottery:
LMLK jar handle seals, amphora, ostraca, Philistine bichrome, Mycenaean IIIc, Cypriot imports, Collared-rim store jars, Samaria-ware, triangular-rimmed cooking pot, stirrup jar, etc.
Significant Texts and Inscriptions:
Siloam tunnel inscription, “Annals of the Kings of Judah and Israel”, Assyrian and Babylonian annals, Ahiram sarcophagus inscription, Gezer calendar, Samaria ostraca, Lachish letters, Nineveh relief, Merneptah stella, Moabite stella / Mesha inscription, Shalmaneser III Black Obelisk, Medinet Habu relief, Arad letters, Sennacherib’s Prism, Cyrus Cylinder, “Tale of Wen-Amon,” Kuntillet ‘Ajrud graffiti, etc.
Major Sites –
know significance, general location, major finds there:
Jerusalem / “City of David”, Samaria, Bethel, Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Lachish, Beer Sheba, Arad, Shiloh, Kuntillet Ajrud, Horvat Qitmit, Ezion-Geber, Gibeah, Jezreel, Hebron, Shechem – Mt. Ebal + Mt. Gerazim, Nineveh, Damascus, Tyre, Sidon, Babylon, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, Ramat Rahel, Tirzah, Jericho / Ai, etc.
Major rulers and leaders:
Rameses II, Merneptah, Tausert, Rameses III, Neco, Tiglath-Pileser, Shalmaneser / Sargon, Sennacherib, Joshua, Saul, David, Solomon, Jeroboam I, Omri, Ahab and Jezebel, Jehu, Jeroboam II, Pekah + Resin, Mesha, Ben-Hadad, Hazael, Hezekiah, Merodach-Baladin, Josiah, Nebuchadnezar, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, etc.
Four-horned altars, incense altars, Taanach Cult Stand.
Baal bull imagery, calves in Israel and Philistia
Kuntillet Ajrud graffito and inscription “Yahweh and his Asherah”
Ashdoda, pillar-figurines, Horvat Qitmit horned god (Edomite?), Asherah, Tanit, Baal, Dagon, Molech
Solomon’s temple – Ain Dara parallel, bit hilani (pillared buildings), “Holy of Holies,” Ark of the Covenant
Cherubim iconography (sphinx?– lion/bull body, wings, human head), Bronze sea, Jachin & Boaz pillars, tabernacle
Biblical Events marking
internal divisions of Iron Age: Tribal League, United Monarchy, 1st
Temple, Divided Monarchy:
Fall of Samaria and Exile of North, Fall of Jerusalem and Exile of Judah, Babylonian Exile, Persian period.
More…. Review Mazar and Period Outlines!!!!!!!!!!