REL 226: Biblical Archaeology:   Useful Terms                         RJDKnauth
(in rough order as they appear in Mazar ch. 1-3)

Palestine

Syria-Palestine

Topography

Transjordan

Fertile Crescent

Mesopotamia

Levant

Canaan

Negev

Shephelah

Rift Valley (Syro-African Rift)

Jezreel Valley

Galilee

kurkar

hamra

rendsina

terra rosa

wadi

nahal, nahar

Dead Sea

Sinai Desert

Via Maris

King's Highway

Hellenistic

Cyprus

Mediterranean

millennium

Sir Flinders Petrie

typology

chronology

William Foxwell Albright

stratigraphy

methodology

Kathleen Kenyon

surface survey

historical geography

Nelson Glueck

salvage dig

robber's trench

cistern

architectural exposure approach

Wheeler-Kenyon method

earth layers analysis

trench

grid

baulk

locus

stratum

level

petrography

neutron activation analysis

faunal remains

C-14 calibration

relative chronology

absolute chronology

inscription

scarab seal

cylinder seal

mud brick

casemate wall

offset-inset wall

pier and rubble construction

ashlar masonry

header-stretcher technique

orthostats

glacis

sapping

siege warfare

bent-axis approach

six-chambered gate

artifact

correlations

Chalcolithic (Copper Age)

Canaanite Period (Bronze Age)

Israelite Period (Iron Age)

Neolithic (Stone Age)

subsistence

hunter/gatherer

pastoralism

Neolithic Revolution

microlith

Natufian

flint

dentalia

einkorn

obsidian

pressure flaking

bitumen

slip

Jericho

Tell Halaf

Yarmukian

burnished

monochrome, bichrome

Anatolia

"desert kite"

Ghassulian

broad room

cultic

standing stone

pithos/pithoi

LíMLK seal

bit hilani (pillared building)

fenestrated

lug handle

ledge handle

basalt

incised

relief

motif

hoard

"cave of the treasure"/Nahal Mishmar hoard

"lost wax" process

artisan

fresco

"violin-shaped" figurine

ibex

necropolis

dolmen

tumuli

cairn

cist grave

nawamis

in situ

iconography

aniconic

ossuary

primary burial

secondary burial

sarcophagus

Ubaid

Uruk

Sumerian (Sumer)

Babylonian (Babylon)

Assyrian (Assur)

Akkadian (Akkad/Agade)

Hittite (Mittanni)

Hurrian

Sea Peoples

Hyksos

hapiru

stella/stele/stelae

cuneiform

hieroglyphics

proto-Sinaitic inscriptions

palaeography

Ugaritic alphabet

 

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