Abbreviated Time Line (all dates approximate, for background)                                                         -RJDKnauth

8000 : (B.C.E.) Neolithic Revolution (agriculture – farming/herding, permanent settlements, etc.)

6000 : Invention of Pottery

4300 - 3300 : Chalcolithic (Copper) Age

4000 : Adam and Eve (by biblical chronology, based on genealogies) in Babylonia (?)

3300 – 2000 : Early Bronze Age (emergence of cities, irrigation, etc.

3300 : Earliest evidence of writing system being developed in Babylonia, then Egypt

3246 (Septuagint) - 2288 (Hebrew) : the Flood; Ark lands on Mt. Ararat in Mesopotamia. Laws given to all humanity.

2680 : First great pyramids in Egypt “Old Kingdom” (ca. 2700-2200)

2250 : "Tower of Babel" (in Babylon - dispersion, languages) according to biblical chronology

2100 : Law Code of Ur-Nammu, Ziggurat (= “tower of Babel”?) in Ur (part of Sumeria/Babylonia).

2000 – 1550 : Middle Bronze Age, Patriarchal period, Canaanite city-states

2000 : Abraham born, moves from Babylonia (Ur) to Canaan.

1750 : Law Code of Hammurabi (in Babylon)

1715, 1705? : Joseph enters Pharaoh’s service in Egypt, Jacob and family relocate to Egypt (by biblical chronology).

1660 : Hyksos (Semitic “Shepherd Kings”) take over rule in Egypt.  Opportunity for Joseph’s rise to power?

1670 – 1240 (1870-1440?  1655-1440?): Israelites enslaved in Egypt (430 years? 215 years?)

1550 – 1200 : Late Bronze Age

1550 : Expulsion of Hyksos (Semitic “Shepherd-Kings) from power in Egypt; beginning of Egyptian “New Kingdom.”

1500 : Invention of Alphabet in Canaan, makes writing accessible to general population

1440 : Israelite Exodus from Egypt according to biblical chronology (480 years before building of Solomon’s temple)?

1350 : New Kingdom Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amunhotep IV) attempts to institute monotheistic Aten worship in Egypt?

1320 : Moses born? (reconstructed backward from scholars’ theory of 1200 conquest)

1290-20 : Pharaoh Rameses II moves capital, undertakes numerous building projects in Egypt.

1240 : Exodus, Sinai Covenant (law of Moses).  Then 40 yrs in Sinai wilderness before entering Canaan.

1209/7 : Merneptah “Israel” Stella mentions unsettled “Israelites” in Canaan.

1200 - 1000 : Iron Age I - Tribal League.  Judges, Heroic Age. "Covenant Code" (Exodus 21-23) dated to this period.

1200 : Wave of destructions and new settlements in Canaan, associated by some scholars with Israelite conquest/settlement

1175 : Philistines (probably Greek, Mycenaean) arrive in Canaan, chief rivals of Israel

1150 : Wave of destructions in Canaan, Egypt loses hegemony over the region

1000 – 925 : Iron Age IIA, United Monarchy – Golden Age of Israel.

1000 : Saul, David - Monarchy begins.  Psalmic worship attributed to David.  Babylonian “Job.”

 960 : 1st Temple built by Solomon.  Ca. 950 in Judah  - “J” Patriarchal narratives, stories of Genesis dated to this period by scholars

 925 -  721 : Iron Age IIB, Divided Kingdoms

 925 : Kingdom of Israel split in two: Northern Israel and Judah.  923 Invasion of Shishak. 

 850 in North : “E” Patriarchal narratives, stories of Genesis dated to this period by scholars

 721 : Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed and dispersed by Assyrians, Judah survives

 721 – 587/6 : Iron Age IIC, Judah alone

 701 : Assyria (Sennacherib) attacks Judah (Hezekiah), but fails to conquer Jerusalem (time of Isaiah)

 700 : Homer writes the Iliad and Odyssey

 622 : King Josiah finds “book of the law” (Deuteronomy?) and starts major religious reform

 612 : Fall of Nineveh (Assyrian capital) to Babylonians

 609 : Egyptian Pharaoh Necho kills King Josiah at Megiddo.

 605 : Battle of Carchemish – Egypt defeated by Babylonians, who take over Assyrian Empire

 587/6: Judah (Jerusalem, 1st Temple) destroyed by Babylonians, Exile in Babylon, some flee to Egypt
                  "P" (legal traditions in Pentateuch) possibly collected/edited in this period

 538/7: Persians (Cyrus) take over Babylon, allow Israelites to return, few do. New Temple authorized.

 516 : 2nd Temple completed and dedicated by Zerubbabel (Davidic hopeful).

 458 - 433 : Ezrah, Nehemiah. 2nd Temple period begins. Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt.

 469 - 399 : Socrates (Athens), Greek philosopher, teacher of Plato.

 428 - 348 : Plato (Athens), Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle.

 384 - 322 : Aristotle (Athens), Greek philosopher, student of Plato. Tutor of Alexander the Great.

 330 : Alexander the Great. Persian empire (and Israel) falls to the Greeks

 200 : Septuagint - Greek translation of Hebrew Bible, done in Egypt

 170 : Maccabees, persecution of Jews, successful rebellion

   65 : Romans conquer holy lands, take over from Greeks. Julius Ceasar.

   30 : Octavius subdues Egypt (Antony,Cleopatra), becomes Roman Emperor, Augustus Ceasar

     4 (B.C.E.) - 33 (C.E./A.D.): Jesus

   50 : (C.E./A.D.) Paul writes "Romans", "Corinthians", etc. (in Greek)

  70 : Persecution, Jewish rebellion. 2nd Temple destroyed, Jews dispersed (incl. Qumran)

1000 : Dark Ages, Crusades, Norman Invasion of England

2000 : Today