Time Line (all dates approximate, for background)
: (B.C.E.) Neolithic Revolution (agriculture – farming/herding,
permanent settlements, etc.)
: Invention of Pottery
- 3300 : Chalcolithic (Copper) Age
: Adam and Eve (by biblical chronology, based on genealogies) in Babylonia (?)
– 2000 : Early Bronze Age (emergence of cities,
: Earliest evidence of writing system being developed in Babylonia, then Egypt
(Septuagint) - 2288 (Hebrew) : the Flood; Ark lands on Mt. Ararat in
Mesopotamia. Laws given to all humanity.
: First great pyramids in Egypt “Old Kingdom” (ca. 2700-2200)
: "Tower of Babel" (in Babylon - dispersion, languages) according to
: Law Code of Ur-Nammu, Ziggurat (= “tower of Babel”?) in Ur (part of
– 1550 : Middle Bronze Age, Patriarchal period, Canaanite city-states
: Abraham born, moves from Babylonia (Ur) to Canaan.
: Law Code of Hammurabi (in Babylon)
1705? : Joseph enters Pharaoh’s service in Egypt, Jacob and family relocate to
Egypt (by biblical chronology).
: Hyksos (Semitic “Shepherd Kings”) take over rule in Egypt.
Opportunity for Joseph’s rise to power?
– 1240 (1870-1440? 1655-1440?):
Israelites enslaved in Egypt (430 years? 215 years?)
– 1200 : Late Bronze Age
: Expulsion of Hyksos (Semitic “Shepherd-Kings) from power in Egypt; beginning
of Egyptian “New Kingdom.”
: Invention of Alphabet in Canaan, makes writing accessible to general
: Israelite Exodus from Egypt according to biblical chronology (480 years before
building of Solomon’s temple)?
: New Kingdom Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amunhotep IV) attempts to institute
monotheistic Aten worship in Egypt?
: Moses born? (reconstructed backward from scholars’ theory of 1200 conquest)
: Pharaoh Rameses II moves capital, undertakes numerous building projects in
: Exodus, Sinai Covenant (law of Moses). Then
40 yrs in Sinai wilderness before entering Canaan.
: Merneptah “Israel” Stella mentions unsettled “Israelites” in Canaan.
- 1000 : Iron Age I - Tribal League. Judges, Heroic Age. "Covenant Code" (Exodus 21-23)
dated to this period.
: Wave of destructions and new settlements in Canaan, associated by some
scholars with Israelite conquest/settlement
: Philistines (probably Greek, Mycenaean) arrive in Canaan, chief rivals of
: Wave of destructions in Canaan, Egypt loses hegemony over the region
– 925 : Iron Age IIA, United Monarchy – Golden Age of Israel.
: Saul, David - Monarchy begins. Psalmic
worship attributed to David. Babylonian
: 1st Temple built by Solomon. Ca.
950 in Judah - “J” Patriarchal
narratives, stories of Genesis dated to this period by scholars
- 721 : Iron Age IIB, Divided
: Kingdom of Israel split in two: Northern Israel and Judah.
923 Invasion of Shishak.
in North : “E” Patriarchal narratives, stories of Genesis dated to this
period by scholars
: Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed and dispersed by Assyrians, Judah
– 587/6 : Iron Age IIC, Judah alone
: Assyria (Sennacherib) attacks Judah (Hezekiah), but fails to conquer Jerusalem
(time of Isaiah)
: Homer writes the Iliad and Odyssey
: King Josiah finds “book of the law” (Deuteronomy?) and starts major
: Fall of Nineveh (Assyrian capital) to Babylonians
: Egyptian Pharaoh Necho kills King Josiah at Megiddo.
: Battle of Carchemish – Egypt defeated by Babylonians, who take over Assyrian
Judah (Jerusalem, 1st Temple) destroyed by Babylonians, Exile in
Babylon, some flee to Egypt
"P" (legal traditions in Pentateuch) possibly collected/edited in this period
Persians (Cyrus) take over Babylon, allow Israelites to return, few do.
New Temple authorized.
: 2nd Temple completed and dedicated by Zerubbabel (Davidic hopeful).
- 433 : Ezrah, Nehemiah. 2nd Temple period begins. Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt.
- 399 : Socrates (Athens), Greek philosopher, teacher of Plato.
- 348 : Plato (Athens), Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, teacher of
- 322 : Aristotle (Athens), Greek philosopher, student of Plato. Tutor of
Alexander the Great.
: Alexander the Great. Persian empire (and Israel) falls to the Greeks
: Septuagint - Greek translation of Hebrew Bible, done in Egypt
: Maccabees, persecution of Jews, successful rebellion
65 : Romans conquer holy lands, take over from Greeks. Julius
30 : Octavius subdues Egypt (Antony,Cleopatra), becomes Roman Emperor,
4 (B.C.E.) - 33 (C.E./A.D.): Jesus
50 : (C.E./A.D.) Paul writes "Romans", "Corinthians",
etc. (in Greek)
70 : Persecution, Jewish rebellion. 2nd Temple destroyed, Jews dispersed
1000 : Dark Ages, Crusades, Norman Invasion of England
2000 : Today